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Diabetes Overview (Part 2)

Diabetes Overview (Part 2)

Laboratory studies:

A urine analysis may be used to look for glucose and ketones from the breakdown of fat. However, a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes.
The following blood tests are used to diagnose diabetes:

Fasting blood glucose level — diabetes is diagnosed if higher than 126 mg/dL on two occasions. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are referred to as impaired fasting glucose or prediabetes. These levels are considered to be risk factors for type 2 diabetes and its complications.

Oral glucose tolerance test — diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours. (This test is used more for type 2 diabetes.)

Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level — diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL and accompanied by the classic diabetes symptoms of increased thirst, urination, and fatigue. (This test must be confirmed with a fasting blood glucose test.)

Persons with diabetes need to have their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level checked every 3 to 6 months. The HbA1c is a measure of average blood glucose during the previous 2 – 3 months. It is a very helpful way to determine how well treatment is working.

Treatment

The immediate goals are to treat diabetic ketoacidosis and high blood glucose levels.

Because type 1 diabetes can start suddenly and have severe symptoms, people who are newly diagnosed may need to go to the hospital.

The long-term goals of treatment are to:

  • Prolong life
  • Reduce symptoms
  • Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs

These goals are accomplished through:

  • Blood pressure and cholesterol control
  • Careful self testing of blood glucose levels
  • Education
  • Exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Foot care
  • Meal planning and weight control
  • Medication or insulin use

There is no known cure for type I diabetes. Treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms.

If you have any questions about diabetes, please email your question or questions to info@nbhlifetimehealth.com.

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