Maintaining an ideal body weight and an active lifestyle may prevent type 2 diabetes.
Currently there is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes. There is no effective screening test for type 1 diabetes in people who don’t have symptoms.
Screening for type 2 diabetes and people with no symptoms is recommended for:
- Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes starting at age 10 and repeating every 2 years
- Overweight adults (BMI greater than 25) who have other risk factors
- Adults over 45, repeated every 3 years
- To prevent complications of diabetes, visit your health care provider or diabetes educator at least four times a year. Talk about any problems you are having
Regularly have the following tests:
- Have your blood pressure checked every year (blood pressure goals should be 130/80 mm/Hg or lower).
- Have your glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) checked every 3-6 months if your diabetes is well controlled, otherwise every 3 months.
- Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked yearly (aim for LDL levels below 100 mg/dL).
- Get yearly tests to make sure your kidneys are working well (microalbuminuria and serum creatinine).
- Visit your ophthalmologist (preferably one who specializes in diabetic retinopathy) at least once a year, or more often if you have signs of diabetic retinopathy.
- See the dentist every 6 months for a thorough dental cleaning and exam. Make sure your dentist and hygienist know that you have diabetes.
- Make sure your health care provider inspects your feet at each visit.
- Stay up-to-date with all of your vaccinations and get a flu shot every year in the fall.
Alemzadeh R, Wyatt DT. Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kliegman RM, ed. Kliegman: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders;2007:chap 590.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes — 2008. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32:S13-S61, 2009.
Eisenbarth GS, Polonsky KS, Buse JB. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 31.
Standards of medical care in diabetes.
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